Steve Frank

About Steve Frank

I am broadly interested in the ecology and management of arthropod pests. Herbivorous arthropods cause extraordinary damage to plants in agricultural, urban, and natural ecosystems. Understanding interactions between pests and their environment, plant hosts, and natural enemies can improve management practices and reduce pesticide applications.

Monitor pine needle scales for egg hatch and crawlers

Pine needle scales are relatively easy to find and to monitor for crawler activity. Stare at the needles of any urban pine for a minute and you will see white flecks on the needles. These are the scales. You can flip the covers with a pin while looking at them with a hand lens. The females are purple blobs the eggs, if present , will spill out as tiny purple ovals.

2017-06-29T12:15:02+00:00 March 30th, 2017|Categories: Uncategorized|